焦點導演 Director-in-Focus

Margarethe von Trotta 瑪格麗特馮卓塔

「歷史陰影中的玫瑰鋒芒」– Margarethe von Trotta 瑪格麗特馮卓塔

德國新電影受法國新浪潮影響,在1960年代至1980年代的二十多年間,湧現一批影史垂名的導演們,如法斯賓達(Rainer Wener Fassbinder)、沃克 施隆多夫(Volker Schlöndorff) 、華納荷索(Werner Herzog)等。瑪格麗特馮卓塔便是其中最為突出的女性導演。她的創作深受英瑪褒曼啟發,是褒曼讓她明白人生與電影可以合而為一,個人的感情、恐懼以及所遭受的磨難都可以放到電影中。2018年她就拍攝了紀錄片《尋找褒曼》(Searching for Bergman),通過電影與自己的藝術啟蒙者重遇。

馮卓塔自1970年代開始獨立創作,到如今78歲高齡,自編自導十多部電影,不算多產,但《德國姐妹》(Marianne and Juliane, 1981)、《羅莎 盧森堡》(Rosa Luxemburg, 1986),以及千禧後的《玫瑰圍牆》(Rosenstrasse, 2003)、《漢娜阿倫特》(Hannah Arendt, 2012)等,都在德國電影史上擲地有聲,每一部都有她鮮明的作者印記。蘇珊桑塔格形容馮卓塔為 “a great feminist filmmaker”,然而,僅女性主義尚不足以涵蓋她的藝 術成就,馮卓塔的電影也是政治的。德國二戰後的社會巨變就是她作品中無處不在的宏闊背景,在主角身上投下歷史的陰影。馮卓塔擅以史詩式的描繪刻畫角色與社會之間的關係,態度嚴謹而有思辯深度。她偏好紮根現實更甚於浪漫想像,不少作品是從歷史人物而來,如《德國姐妹》是取材自1970年德國極左派恐怖份子的真實事件,《羅莎・盧森堡》為這位波蘭猶太裔馬克思主義學者作影像傳記,《漢娜鄂蘭:真理無懼》則特寫了二戰後最重要的哲學著述《平庸之惡》的誕生。馮卓塔對女性墮胎權、恐怖主義、罪惡、種族創傷、性別困境等的表述充滿力度,其女性角色往往有無窮鬥志,哪怕在無力刺破的政治陰影之中,也選擇以個體生命的堅毅態度,展現玫瑰的鋒芒。

馮卓塔1942年生於柏林,是深受二戰影響的一代。她的母親本為俄國貴族,1917年俄國大革命後流亡德國,此後一直以無國籍人士身分在德國生活。馮卓塔與母親相依為命,生活窮苦,也是直到第一次結婚時才取得德國公民身分。知道她的這些經歷,也就不難明白她作品中反覆出現的姐妹式情誼、身分創傷等母題了。她2003年的作品《玫瑰圍牆》回到1943年的柏林,寫一個猶太家庭中的女性,母親、姐妹之間的關係在政治裹挾下走向激烈的衝突。《漢娜阿倫特》最為精彩的就是重現了這位哲學家的身分處境,寫出了漢娜如何帶著逃離集中營的創傷經歷,提出“惡”的辯證,當然她也為這一振聾發聵的勇敢洞察付出了代價。

馮卓塔的作品都很平實誠懇,娓娓道來,但每一個女性形象都很美,完全打破了性別陳見,呈現精神上的美,知識份子的美,敢於獨立發聲的美。馮卓塔自言,幾乎在她所有作品背後,她都在問自己一個問題:當面對的是無力改變的社會和歷史時候,她該如何?相信所有的觀眾都會感受到這個問題從未過時,或者可以在馮卓塔的電影中得到啟發。

注釋1:其原話為Bergman gave me this idea that life and filmmaking can be one, that your own feelings and your own fears and suffering can all be put
into a film.
注釋2:其原話為:the life of Hannah Arendt poses a question I’ve asked in most of my films – of Rosa Luxemburg, of Marianne and Juliane, and others: how does a person act when subjected to historical and social events and conditions over which she has no influence?  


喬奕思簡介
喬奕思,影評人,香港電影評論學會會員。曾任香港國際電影節國際影評人費比西獎、CASCADIA International Women’s Film Festival、IFVA awards評審。電影方面參與編輯的書籍有《異色經典——邱剛健電影劇本選集》(2018)等。

漢娜鄂蘭:真理無懼 Hannah Arendt

07/11 星期六 Sat  16:30 | 永樂戲院 Cinema Alegria

德國、盧森堡、法國及以色列 Germany, Luxembourg, France and Israel│ 2012 │ 彩色 Colour │ 113 ‘ │(組別)

德語、法語、英語、希伯來語及拉丁語,中英文字幕 |In German, French, English, Hebrew and Lain with Chinese and English subtitles

導演 Director:瑪格麗特馮卓塔 Margarethe von Trotta

「邪惡以『平庸』的方式體現於人間,其特徵是人們停止和拒絕思考。」─ 漢娜・鄂蘭。

漢娜鄂蘭(Hannah Arendt,1906-1975年 )是20世紀最偉大的女性思想家之一。在納粹劊子手艾希曼的世紀審判中,她親臨審判現場報導;聽著艾希曼的自白,她發現眾人眼中的惡魔,其實只是「依法行事」的平凡人。她不但提出「邪惡的平庸」,更大膽指出猶太人也是這場悲劇的共犯。文章刊出後輿論譁然,讓她飽受評擊與威脅。但她毫不畏懼,捍衛真理,終生論述邪惡的本質。

馮卓塔的這部傳記電影不但記錄了漢娜從審判到整理出其思想的過程,也從側面描寫了她的感情、家庭和踏上思考之路的人生經歷。德國影后芭芭拉蘇高娃更憑此片第三度榮登德國奧斯卡影后。

In 1961, one of the greatest philosopher, Hannah Arendt, gets to report on the trial of the notorious Nazi war criminal, Adolf Eichmann. Her report—controversial both for her portrayal of Eichmann and the Jewish councils—introduced her now-famous concept of the “Banality of Evil.” The result is a bitter public controversy in which Arendt is accused of blaming the Holocaust’s victims. Now that strong willed intellectual is forced to defend her ideas in a struggle that will exact a heavy personal cost.

The sublime Barbara Sukowa reteams with director Margarethe von Trotta for a brilliant new biopic of the influential German-Jewish philosopher and political theorist.They beautifully turn the often invisible passion for thought into immersive, dramatic cinema.

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  • 榮獲2013年「巴伐利亞電影獎」最佳女主角
  • Winner – Silver Lola for Best Film and Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role, German Film Awards 2013
  • Winner – Best Actress, Bavarian Film Awards 2013

羅莎盧森堡 Rosa Luxemburg

14/11  星期六  SAT 19:30 | 澳門紐曼樞機藝文館

Macau Cardinal Newman Centre of Cutural and Performance Arts

西德 West Germany│ 1986│ 彩色 Colour │ 122 ‘│ B

德語、法語及波蘭語,中英文字幕 |In German, French and Polish with Chinese and English subtitles

導演 Director:瑪格麗特馮卓塔 Margarethe von Trotta

馬克思主義革命家羅莎盧森堡(Rosa Luxemburg,1871-1919年)是現代歐洲政治史上最迷人的人物之一。她一生為爭取婦女​​權利和國家改革而奮鬥,從波蘭走到德國投入工人運動,期間因反對一戰而遭多次入獄,但仍然不為強權而低頭。出獄後創立德國共產黨,正值人生高峰卻在47歲時被謀殺身亡。

馮卓塔透過羅莎的2500封書信和演說,重新刻劃這位激進革命家的形象。她以一個女性的角度追隨著羅莎的足跡,從她的革命熱情到她的私人情感,到最終被暗殺的悲劇命運;而榮獲當年康城影后的芭芭拉蘇高娃更加傾力演出,把一位女革命家的細膩思想和堅強意志展現得更為立體和富有深度。

Margarethe von Trotta’s remarkable biopic explores one of the most fascinating figures in modern European political history. Having fought for women’s rights and to revolutionise the state in early 20th century Poland and Germany, Marxist revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919) formed the famous Spartacist League, later the Communist Party of Germany before her murder in Berlin aged 47.

The film traces Luxemburg’s political and moral development from journalist and author to dissenter from the party line and imprisoned pacifist. Portrayed masterfully by von Trotta regular Barbara Sukowa, Luxemburg’s character comes alive on screen with more depth and complexity.

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  • 提名1986年「康城影展」金棕櫚獎
  • Winner – Best Feature Film in Gold, Best Director, Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role, Best Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role, Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role, German Film Awards 1986
  • Winner – Best Actress, Cannes Film Festival 1986
  • Nominee – Palme d’Or, Cannes Film Festival 1986

設影後座談 Post-screening Talk

講者:香港影評人 喬奕思

語言:粵語

Guest: Joyce Yang (Hong Kong Film Critic) 

Language:Cantonese

德國姊妹  Marianne & Juliane

16/11 星期一 Mon 19:30 | 澳門紐曼樞機藝文館

Macau Cardinal Newman Centre of Cutural and Performance Arts

西德 West Germany│ 1981│ 彩色 Colour │ 106 ‘ │ (組別)

德語,中英文字幕 │ In German with Chinese and English subtitles

導演 Director:瑪格麗特馮卓塔 Margarethe von Trotta

Juliane和Marianne是一對成長於二戰時期西德的姊妹。兩人雖出自同一個壓抑保守的家庭,但個性與命運迥異。姊姊 Juliane是女權記者,尋求體制內改革的可能性,妹妹Marianne則是一名激進的革命行動派。隨著妹妹的政治行動變得越發危險,姊姊陷入了在政治與家人之間選擇的困境。在那個被稱之為「鉛一般沈重」的50年代,所有人的命運都被時代牢牢困住。

馮卓塔的這部曠世巨作被瑞典電影大師英格瑪柏格曼(Ingmar Bergman)視為此生最愛的電影之一。改編自真實事件,本片被公認為德國新電影的經典之作,而首次合作的芭芭拉蘇高娃更憑此片獲得威尼斯影展和德國奧斯卡雙料影后。

Two sisters take diverging paths to emancipation in West Germany. Juliane is a feminist journalis while Marianne a revolutionary terrorist. As Marianne’s political activism becomes more dangerous, Juliane is torn between her politics and the need to protect her sister and family. But when Marianne is imprisoned, Juliane is forced to confront the realities and harsh power of the state.

As Margarethe von Trotta’s first collaboration with her muse Barbara Sukowa, this film was selected by Ingmar Bergman as one of his favourite films of all time. Justly considered one of the classics of the New German Cinema movement, this film tells a prescient and intimate story of Germany based on the real life story of the Enslein sisters.

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  • 榮獲1981年「威尼斯影展」金獅獎、最佳女主角、影評人費比西獎
  • Winner – Best Feature Film in Gold, Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role, German Film Awards 1982
  • Winner – Golden Lion Award, FIPRESCI Prize and Best Actress, Venice Film Festival 1981

設影後座談 Post-screening Talk

講者:香港影評人 喬奕思

語言:粵語

Guest: Joyce Yang (Hong Kong Film Critic) 

Language:Cantonese

Thorns on Roses in the Shadows of History — About Margarethe von Trotta

Inspired by the French New Wave, the New German Cinema, during the period between the 1960’s and 1980’s, saw the emergence of numerous acclaimed directors, including Rainer Wener Fassbinder, Volker Schlöndorff and Werner Herzog. Among this generation, Margarethe von Trotta is definitely the most prominent female director, whose works have been profoundly inspired by Ingmar Bergman. Von Trotta has learnt from Bergman that life and filmmaking can be one and that personal feelings, fears and suffering can all be put into a film. Searching for Bergman, a documentary she made in 2018, serves as her tribute to Bergman for reunion. 

Starting independent productions since the 1970’s, von Trotta, now aged 78, has written and directed over 10 films, including Marianne and Juliane (1981), Rosa Luxemburg (1986), Rosenstrasse (2003) and Hannah Arendt (2012), which are all highlights of the German cinema and showcase her distinctive style. Susan Sontag has once hailed von Trotta as a great feminist filmmaker — but she is more than that. Politics is a major theme of her films, which dwell on how the protagonists live in the shadows of the German history and the drastic changes in society after World War II. She excels at her epic, rigorous and thoughtful portrayal of the relationship between her characters and the society, while her style is deeply rooted in reality rather than romantic beliefs, with many of her works based on real-life characters and events. For instance, Marianne and Juliane is based on the real-life account of the far-left terrorists in Germany in 1970; Rosa Luxemburg is an autobiographical film about the eponymous Polish-Jewish Marxist; and Hannah Arendt portrays how the “Banality of Evil”, one of the most important philosophical notions, has been developed after WWII. In regards to abortion rights of women, terrorism, crimes, racial trauma, gender dilemma and other topics, Von Trotta takes a strong stance in her films, and the female characters all possess an unrelenting fighting spirit — albeit living in the shadows of politics that often render them powerless, they each continue on their lives with perseverance alike the thorns on roses.  

Born in Berlin in 1942, von Trotta and her generation were profoundly affected by WWII. Her mother, a Russian aristocrat, fled in exile to Germany after the Russian Revolution of 1917, and had lived in the western country since then as a stateless person. Living with little money but having a close bond with her mother, von Trotta only obtained the German citizenship after her first marriage. Taking account of her experiences, it is not difficult to understand why her films typically center on themes like sisterhood and the examination of identities. Her work, Rosenstrasse (2003),  explores the relationships of sisters and mother-daughters in a Jewish family in Berlin in 1943 amid the fierce political struggles. The most exciting part about her other film Hannah Arendt is the examination of the identities of the eponymous philosopher, depicting how Arendt is traumatized by her experience in the escapee from the concentration camp, how she puts forward the notion of the “Banality of Evil”, and how she eventually pays the price for her enlightening and bravery insights. 

Von Trotta’s films are candid, sincere and eloquent, and the images of each female character in the works do not only break gender stereotypes but are also exquisitely crafted spiritually, intellectually and vocally. Von Trotta has once said she asks herself one question in most of her films: how does a person act when being subjected to historical and social events and conditions over which she has no influence?  It is believed that all the audiences probably think this question is still as relevant as ever, and von Trotta’s films could be their inspirations.  (Text: Joyce Yang)




Joyce Yang’s bio

Joyce YANG, a film critic, member of Hong Kong Film Critics Society. She has served as a jury member for FIPRESCI Prizes of HKIFF, CASCADIA International Women’s Film Festival and IFVA awards. She has co-edited a book on the selection of Chiu Kang-Chien’s award-winning film scripts.