澳門特別放映 – 德國表現主義 Macau SPECIAL SCREENINGS: German Expressionist Classics

German Expressionist Classics 德國表現主義

澳門特別放映 – 德國表現主義

文/ 林瀚光博士 

德國表現主義聯合其他國家的電影運動,如蘇聯革命電影、意大利新現實主義和法國新浪潮等,在荷里活的經典電影製作模式之外另闢蹊徑,拓寬了電影作為發展中的媒介的可能性。跟其他電影運動一樣,它起源於特定的歷史環境和文化背景。然而,由此產生的電影,從其風格、方法和觀點而言,已超越了孕育其發展的原始條件,不局限於特定的時間和地點,在全球範圍內具有影響力。通過重溫四部在默片時代被視為德國表現主義的核心電影,包括《卡里加里博士的小屋》(1920年)、《吸血疆屍》(1922年)、《大都會》(1927年)及《泥人歌林的誕生》(1920年),我們不僅欣賞其對電影語言的永恆貢獻——至今仍然能夠強烈地感受其影響力——而且還可以理解動盪的歷史細節如何構成電影中如夢魘般的觀感,回到處於兩次世界大戰期間的德國政體威瑪共和國(1918-1933年)。

在第一次世界大戰期間,由於德國對海外電影實施禁令,令該國電影工業迎來了一段興盛時期。在缺乏海外競爭的情況下,德國本土電影業迎來增長,到戰事結束時,德國國有/半私營企業全球電影股份公司(UFA)成立,促進德國電影出口以加強其在國際市場的競爭力。吸納了Decla-Bioscop等競爭對手,UFA及其製作負責人艾里奇·鮑默在20年代初期開創了一段黃金時期,通過《吸血疆屍》及《卡里加里博士的小屋》等作品,德國表現主義電影在國際舞台上獲得讚賞。然而,到1924年,隨著經濟呈穩定態勢,美國電影湧入德國市場,對德國電影業造成了災難性的影響:像費立茲·朗執導的《尼伯龍根》(1923-4年)和《大都會》(1926年)等UFA的巨額製作——其中後者製作成本達500萬馬克,是當時有史以來製作費最高昂的德國電影——在票房上遭遇慘敗。因此必須與強大的美國電影公司簽訂不公平的發行協議以謀求生存,這進一步削弱了德國電影製作,反之荷里活則佔優。

德國表現主義首先是一種源自那個時期的繪畫、建築和其他藝術媒介的視覺風格,從浪漫主義而非現實主義中汲取靈感:它代表了一種激進的風格,將經常受到折磨的內心心理狀態具體化、將無意識形象化,而不是自然描繪外部的物理現實。心情、感受和氣氛是至關重要的。局部、不真實、誇張的扭曲,強調陰影和黑暗,這些都是該視覺風格的特徵,在電影中轉化為明暗對照法的燈光、非常風格化的佈景和服裝令其看起來像源於童話故事或繪本插圖,以及因化妝、面部表情和肢體語言而傾向抽象主義的表演。在兩次世界大戰之間,表現主義的風格在德國具主導地位,令新即物主義誕生以對抗衡前者的主觀主義和浪漫主義的過度行為。例如,《星期天的人們》(1930年)及華特·魯特曼的《柏林:城市交響曲》(1927年)等新即物主義風格的電影,走出德國表現主義電影偏愛的攝影棚環境,反而去捕捉街頭生活,採用更接近新聞報道風格的紀錄片形式。

德國表現主義電影帶來的社會影響一直是眾多研究的主題,尤其是齊格弗里德·科拉考爾的《從卡里加里到希特拉:德國電影的心理史》(1947年)。科拉考爾認為德國表現主義電影是逃避現實者未能接受現實,並以理性態度去對抗兩次世界大戰期間所遇到的困難的形式。像《卡里加里博士的小屋》等電影提供了具寓意的解讀,暗指專制傾向和德國人願意服從非理性權威,從而導致希特拉和納粹主義的崛起。沿著這思路,雖然科幻電影《大都會》可能以宏大的反烏托邦思想隱喻威瑪共和國的階級分化,但費立茲·朗後來對以浪漫及寓言的手法來解決一個極度現實的社會問題感到後悔。「當時我不像現在一樣具有政治頭腦,」他向彼得·博格達諾維奇稱,「你不能製作一套具有社會意識的作品,並稱聯繫手和大腦之間的是心臟。我的意思是,這理所當然是一個童話故事。」


儘管有人擔心從默片過渡到有聲電影或會削弱電影的視覺衝擊力,但德國表現主義對電影語言發展的影響是即時及持久的。納粹的崛起導致許多重要的電影製片人離開德國,成為荷里活的新移民導演,並對恐怖片和黑色電影的美學產生了巨大影響。例如,德國攝影師卡爾·弗洛恩德負責鉤勒托德·布朗寧在環球影業的經典《德古拉》(1930年) 的氛圍,而德國表現主義中的明暗對照法的燈光和黑暗氛圍,都非常適合在黑色電影中描繪戰後美國的城市模樣,像很多經典作品都由費立茲·朗等從德國流亡的電影人執導。幾十年後,德國表現主義的影響力仍然存在,並已超出了恐怖片或所謂的新黑色電影的範圍。如是次展出的系列電影激發了不同電影致敬參考:好像在70年代,大衛·寶兒嘗試根據《卡里加里博士的小屋》等德國表現主義電影改編喬治奧威爾的著作《1984》,而《大都會》成為《銀翼殺手》(1982年)及《阿基拉》(1988年)等無數科幻電影的參考對象。從添布頓到大衛·連治,這些導演都深受德國表現主義的風格啟發,韋納·荷索則創新地翻拍電影《吸血疆屍》(1979年),更不用提伊里亞斯·墨西格受此激發而創作的自省、後設小說之作《我和殭屍有份合約》(2000年),講述該殭屍片的「製作」過程,由尊·麥高維治飾演茂瑙和威廉·達福飾演馬克斯·史瑞克。


專題講座 (線上) - 德國表現主義電影
Film Talk (online) – German Expressionism 
11/06  星期六 SAT 18:00-19
:00
東方基金會 Casa Garden

講者:香港大學講師林瀚光博士
Guest: Dr. Derek Lam University of Hong Kong
語言:粵語
Language:Cantonese


《卡里加利博士的小屋》The Cabinet of Dr.Caliugari

11/06 星期六 Sat  19:30 | 東方基金會 Casa Garden

德國 Germany│ 1920│ 黑白 BW │67’│ B

無對白 No dialogue

導演 Director:Robert Wiene

作為德國表現主義電影的開創者,《卡里加里博士的小屋》講述一位夢遊者受催眠影響而涉及多宗謀殺案件,引發觀眾對故事背後的寓言猜想,是否暗喻納粹主義可理解為屈服於非理性權威的行為。姑勿論如何,其風格影響深遠。從康拉德·維特令人著迷的演出,到貫徹始終、出色的佈景場面,皆呈現了電影的風格化美學,完美體現德國表現主義著重於內在心理狀態的視象化而非外在現實。來自不同領域的藝術家,如添布頓、大衛·寶兒和維珍尼亞·伍爾芙等都深受其影響。

A seminal film in the development of German Expressionist cinema, The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari has proven to be hugely influential on a stylistic level, even as its story of a somnambulist hypnotized to commit a series of murders has invited interpretation concerning its allegorical relevance to the rise of Nazism as an act of submission to irrational authority.  The film’s remarkably stylised aesthetic – seen anywhere from Conrad Veidt’s mesmerizing performance to the extraordinary sets throughout — perfectly embodies the German Expressionist approach towards visualization based on inner mental states rather than outwards physical reality, and has impressed such diverse artists as Tim Burton, David Bowie, and Virginia Woolf.

  • 德國表現主義電影的開創者
  • The Pioneer of German Expressionist Film

《泥人歌林的誕生》The Golem: How he Came into the World

11/14 星期日  Sun   17:30 | 東方基金會 Casa Garden

德國 Germany│ 1920│ 黑白 BW │76’│ B

無對白 No dialogue

導演 Director:Carl Boese / Paul Wegener

保羅·威格納創作出三部帶有關神話人物「歌林」的電影,但只有《泥人歌林的誕生》這部電影仍保存了拷貝供後世欣賞。電影以中世紀的布拉格為故事舞台,取材自民間傳說,講述由智者拉比用泥土粘砌而成的人物「歌林」(由威格納親身飾演),在拉比的年輕助手的操縱之下於猶太社區大肆破壞。由德國表現主義的推手之一卡爾·弗洛恩德掌鏡,他於1930年代為環球電影公司拍攝了多部經典的恐怖片,《泥人歌林的誕生》細緻捕足當時的猶太文化和反猶太主義,成為相關分析研究的素材。

Although Paul Wegener made three movies featuring the mythical figure of the golem, The Golem: How He Came Into the World is the only one that has surviving copies available for viewing today.  Set in medieval Prague, the film tells the story taken from folklore of a figure (the titular golem, played by Wegener himself) made out of clay by a rabbi who goes on to wreak havoc in the Jewish ghetto when manipulated by the rabbi’s young assistant.  Shot by Karl Freund — a key figure in German Expressionist cinema who later worked on Universal’s horror classics of the 1930s – The Golem has also been given a range of readings regarding its depiction of Jewish culture and anti-semitism.

  • 德國恐怖電影代表作
  • German Horror Film Masterpiece


《吸血彊屍》Nosferatu

11/07  星期日  Sun 19:30 | 東方基金會 Casa Garden

德國 Germany│ 1992│ 黑白 BW │94’│ B

無對白 No dialogue

導演 Director:F.W. Murnau

《吸血疆屍》這套對後世影響深遠的恐怖片名作,源自布拉姆·斯托克的小說《德古拉》,但未曾正式獲授權改編,其內容亦作修改以符合德國文化環境。這部經典之作匯聚了一支才華洋溢的團隊,各成員往後都成為德國表現主義電影的重要人物:導演茂瑙、編劇亨利克·加侖(以《歌林》系列電影聞名)及攝影師費立茲·華格納(他後來是帕布斯特及費立茲·朗的固定合作班底)。馬克斯·史瑞克在劇中出演疆屍奧樂伯爵,獻上教科書級的表演,後來獲貝納多·貝托魯奇、朱奧·西薩·蒙岱羅等名導致敬。

The most iconic of horror films that influenced countless others to follow, Nosferatu was an unauthorized adaptation of Bram Stoker’s Dracula reworked to fit a German setting.  A classic in its own right, it also brought together a creative team whose members would all go on to become key figures in German Expressionist cinema: director F.W. Murnau, screenwriter Henrik Galeen (known for his work on the Golem films), and cinematographer Fritz Arno Wagner (later a regular collaborator with Pabst and Lang).  Max Schreck’s performance as vampire Count Orlok has become the stuff of cinematic legend, paid tribute to by a range of auteurs ranging from Bernardo Bertolucci to João César Monteiro.

  • 殭屍電影鼻祖
  • Originator of Zombie Movies

《大都會》Metropolis

11/13 星期六 Sat 21:30 | 永樂戲院 Cinema Alegria

德國 Germany│ 1927│ 黑白 BW│ 155’│  B

無對白 No dialogue

導演 Director:Fritz Lang

今時今日的影迷相當幸福,能夠欣賞費立茲・朗的嘔心瀝血之作《大都會》,而且現時版本是最接近原始版本——在過去數十年,這套作品一直缺少部分片段,直到 2008 年發現有關拷貝並經修復後,費立茲・朗的剪輯完全版基本上終於重見天日。攝影師尤根·雪夫坦為這套電影添上了當時最先進的特效,費立茲・朗則鉤勒出一個陷入叛變邊緣、充滿未來主義、階級分明的反烏托邦。雖然製作耗資巨額,但電影上映當時反應冷淡,後來才逐漸成為史詩級的科幻電影之一,啟發《銀翼殺手》及《阿基拉》等後世的經典作品。

Audiences today are fortunate to experience Fritz Lang’s masterpiece in a form closer to its original version than ever before: for decades shorter cuts with footage missing circulated until Lang’s edit was finally restored almost in its entirety on the basis of a print discovered in 2008.  Featuring state-of-the art special effects at the time (masterminded by cinematographer Eugen Schüfftan), Lang’s spectacular vision of a futuristic, class-divided dystopia on the brink of revolt was a hugely expensive production that met with a lukewarm response at the time of its release, only to go on to become one of the most influential films in the sci-fi genre, clearly echoed in such later classics ranging from Blade Runner to Akira.

  • 開創科幻電影的經典巨片
  • The Pioneered Science Fiction Classic

Macau SPECIAL SCREENINGS: German Expressionist Classics


German Expressionist Classics
Text / Dr. Derek Lam

Along with such other national film movements as Soviet revolutionary cinema, Italian neorealism, and the French New Wave, German Expressionism posed a strong alternative to the classical Hollywood model of filmmaking that broadened the possibilities of movies as a developing medium.  Like those other movements, it arose from a particular set of historical circumstances and a specific cultural context.  The resulting films, however – in terms of their style, method, and outlook – have proven to be influential around the world in ways that transcend those original conditions belonging to a unique time and place that gave birth to them.  Through revisiting a quartet of essential German Expressionist films (The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, 1920; Nosferatu, 1922; Metropolis, 1927; and The Golem: How He Came Into the World, 1920) that are central to the movement in its silent period, we can appreciate not only their timeless contribution to the language of cinema – a formal influence that is still strongly felt to this day – but also understand the specifics of the tumultuous history that lay behind their nightmarish visions, taking us back to the period of Germany’s Weimar Republic (1918-1933) between the two world wars.
 
     The German national film industry enjoyed a boom period during the First World War owing to foreign films being banned.  The absence of competition from abroad led to the domestic growth of the industry, and by the end of the war, Universum Film AG (UFA) was established as a national/semi-private enterprise to facilitate the export of German films in order to compete in the international market.  Absorbing competing companies like Decla-Bioscop, Ufa and its head of production Erich Pommer presided over a period of success in the early part of the Twenties, with German Expressionist films gaining an international reputation through such works as Nosferatu and The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari.  By 1924, however, with the stabilization of the economy, American films flooded the German market, with a catastrophic effect on the national film industry: lavish Ufa productions like Lang’s Die Nibelungen (1923-4) and Metropolis (1926) – the latter costing some five million marks as the most expensive German film ever made at the time – were massive box-office failures.  Often unfair distribution agreements had to be entered into with powerful American film companies, a bid for survival that only further weakened German film production in favor of Hollywood.
 
     German Expressionism was above all a visual style originating in painting, architecture, and other artistic mediums of ther period that took their cue from romanticism rather than realism: it represented an aggressively stylized approach towards materializing often tormented inner mental states – visualizing the unconscious – rather than the naturalistic depiction of external physical reality.  Mood, feeling, and atmosphere were paramount.  The distortion of perspective, unreal, exaggerated proportions, an emphasis on shadows and darkness – all were characteristics of this visual style that in cinema translated into chiaroscuro lighting, extraordinarily stylized sets and costumes that looked as if they belonged to a fairy tale or a storybook’s illustration, and performances involving makeup, facial expressions, and body language that tend towards formal abstraction.  The dominance of expressionism as a style in Germany during the interwar period was such that a movement known as New Objectivity (Neue Sachlichkeit) emerged to counter its subjectivism and romantic excesses.  Films, for instance, in the New Objectivity style such as People on Sunday (1930) or Walter Ruttmann’s Germany: Symphony of a Metropolis (1927) took German cinema out of the studio setting preferred by expressionist films to capture life on the streets, employing documentary methods that were closer in style to journalistic reportage.
 
     The social implications of German Expressionist cinema have been the subject of numerous studies, most notably Siegfried Kracauer’s From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film (1947).  Kracauer regarded German Expressionist cinema as evidence of an escapist failure to come to terms with reality and to confront in a rational way the difficulties of the interwar period.  Rather, such films as The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari could be read allegorically as suggesting autocratic tendencies and the willingness of Germans to submit to irrational authority, leading to the rise of Hitler and the Nazis.  Along these lines, while the science fiction film Metropolis might suggest a grand allegorical treatment of Weimar society’s class divisions by means of a spectacular dystopian fantasy, Lang later expressed regret at the way that it proposed a romantic, fable-like solution to a very real social problem.  “I was not so politically minded in those days as I am now,” he told Peter Bogdanovich.  “You cannot make a social-conscious picture in which you say that the intermediary between the hand and the brain is the heart. I mean, that’s a fairy tale—definitely.”
 
     The effect and impact of German Expressionism on cinema’s development as a language was nevertheless both immediate and lasting, despite fears that the transition from silent to sound cinema might mute the medium’s visual impact.  The rise of the Nazis led to a host of important filmmakers leaving Germany and becoming émigré directors in Hollywood, where they had a strong influence on the aesthetic of the horror film as well as the film noir.  German cinematographer Karl Freund, for instance, was responsible for the look of Tod Browning’s Universal classic Dracula (1930), while the chiaroscuro lighting and dark atmospherics of German Expressionism were well suited for visualizing the urban underbelly of postwar America in film noir, with many classic titles directed by exiles from Germany like Fritz Lang.  Decades later, the influence of German Expressionism has remained, and certainly beyond the confines of the horror genre or the so-called neo-noir.  The titles in this series, for instance, have inspired a range of tributes and homages: in the Seventies, for instance, David Bowie attempted an adaptation of George Orwell’s 1984 based on the look of German Expressionist films like Caligari, while Metropolis has inspired the look of countless sci-fi films from Blade Runner (1982) to Akira (1988).  Auteurs ranging from Tim Burton to David Lynch owe a stylistic debt to German Expressionism, while the film Nosferatu has been inventively remade by Werner Herzog (1979), not to mention inspiring a self-reflexive, metafictional “making-of” by E. Elias Merhige (Shadow of the Vampire, 2000), starring John Malkovich as F.W. Murnau and Willem Dafoe as Max Schreck.